Will this work with a thick ottorbox case?

Works fine with my Unicorn Beetle Supcase

Will this still charge my S7 if my charger port has been damaged and wont take a generic charger?

Yes, it would be a good choice and it comes with a micro USB cord.

iPhone 8 frequently beeps and lights up while charging is that normal?

I also have the iphoneX and my girlfriend has the 8plus this charges both. I use the iPhone USB wall plug and works great

What is the connector type at the base of the charger?

it's micro USB

Will the charger work in a computers USB port?

Not sure

Can you plug in headset when charging?

Sure, You can put the phone on charging pad horizontally to charge.

Does this charge faster than a cord?

no, I bought two different brand wireless charger, both are slower than a cord

What is a 5v 2a adapter?

The output of the adapter is 10W

Does this have a built-in cooling fan to keep the phone cool???

No, but I haven’t had an issue with my phone heating up

I place the phone on it and the light goes from red to blue, indicating it is charging, it really isn’t charging.

check if your phone is compatible with it